Cellulose chemical structure. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The structural unit of polysaccharides is monosaccharides (sugars). Synthetic biopolymers are human-made copies of biopolymers obtained by abiotic chemical routes. Such an arrangement fits easily into a groove of double helical DNA. Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polyhydroxyalkoanate (PHA) are the most common biopolymers in terms of production and use but are mainly used for short-term applications (Reddy, 2012). The most common biopolymer is Cellulose. The study conducted by Bezerra et al. While initial commercialisation has focused on short-term applications for biopolymers, research and development is now directed to increasing the durability of these polymers (Chen and Patel, 2011). Bio-on's biopolymer was tested by an independent certified laboratory and was found to be a biobased material 100% originating from agricultural, forest or marine ingredients. These polymeric networks, in their turn, provide higher gain of mechanic properties, once they involve Portland cement hydrates more efficiently (Figure 10.7). Apparently, the presence of cationic charges presents a strong chemical interaction to the cement particles, leading to an early hydration (Álvarez et al., 2012). Figure 10.18. Biopolymers are polymers produced from natural sources either chemically synthesized from a biological material or entirely biosynthesized by living organisms. H.M. Powell, S.T. Electrospinning of biopolymers offers advantages in precision of fabrication and versatility of composition compared to freeze-dried sponges. Biopolymer mud, however, is more expensive than traditional synthetically made drilling fluids. These three biopolymers (cellulose, chitin, and chitosan) have similar chemical structures (Figure 10.6 and Chapter 7), differing only in their pendant functional groups. Biodegradability is a dubious property; a concrete that degrades over time is not accepted. In addition, the relatively low cost of and renewable nature make this class of material particularly attractive to high-value sectors such as the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. Morris, in Wound Healing Biomaterials, 2016. This results in unique technologies and high-quality products. Carbon-based feedstocks for PHAs include sugarcane, whey and methane. The behavior described previously is common when it comes to latex in concrete, but a different result was obtained by Muhammad et al. ABDULHAMID MOHAMED 17.03.2016 2. Chitosan is nothing more than a product from deacetylation of chitin (Bezerra, 2006); moreover, chitosan is a stable material in alkaline environments and of low acidity (Craveiro et al., 1999). The proteins that interact with nucleic acids (e.g., repressors) bind to specific base sequences or secondary structures on the polymeric acids. (wikipedia biopolymer) (en noun) (biochemistry) any macromolecule of a living organism that is formed from the polymerization of smaller entities; a polymer that occurs in a living organism or results from life. Although the bonding is relatively weak, the interactions can be strong, because an area of the surface of one polymer molecule fits exactly (sometimes after minor conformational changes) onto the surface of another. Based on their origin, three types of biopolymers can be traditionally distinguished into natural, synthetic and microbial biopolymers as shown in Fig. Similar studies were performed by Martinelli et al. 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